Interview Questions

Top 84 Software Testing Interview Questions and Answers

Software Testing Interview Questions and Answers

Software Testing Interview Questions and Answers

Software Testing Interview Questions and Answers for beginners and experts. List of frequently asked Software Testing Interview Questions with answers by Besant Technologies. We hope these Software Testing interview questions and answers are useful and will help you to get the best job in the networking industry. This Software Testing interview questions and answers are prepared by Software Testing Professionals based on MNC Companies expectation. Stay tuned we will update New Software Testing Interview questions with Answers Frequently. If you want to learn Practical Software Testing Training then please go through this Software Testing Training in Chennai and Software Testing Training in Bangalore

Best Software Testing Interview Questions and Answers

Besant Technologies supports the students by providing Software Testing interview questions and answers for the job placements and job purposes. Software Testing is the leading important course in the present situation because more job openings and the high salary pay for this Software Testing and more related jobs. We provide the Software Testing online training also for all students around the world through the Gangboard medium. These are top Software Testing interview questions and answers, prepared by our institute experienced trainers.

Software Testing interview questions and answers for the job placements

Here is the list of most frequently asked Software Testing Interview Questions and Answers in technical interviews. These questions and answers are suitable for both freshers and experienced professionals at any level. The questions are for intermediate to somewhat advanced Software Testing professionals, but even if you are just a beginner or fresher you should be able to understand the answers and explanations here we give.


Q1) How do you define Bug and Defect?
  • Defect – This is what if software misses any function or feature which are there in requirement list, then this is known as a defect.
  • Bug – A bug is a flaw or a failure in a system that causes it to yield an unexpected or incorrect result.
Q2) What are the various categories of defects? Explain.

There are basically three main categories of defects: Wrong, Missing and Extra.

  • Wrong: This is when the provided and specified requirements have been implemented incorrectly.
  • Missing: This is a case where customer’s provided requirement might be missed or not properly noted. So the customer is not served, in the end, with his requirement.
  • Extra: An extra and unwanted requirement is added into the product that was not even specified by the end customer. It is considered a defect as a variance is there from the existing requirement list.
Q3) Explain risk-based testing.

Risk-based Testing – It is an approach used for creating a test strategy. This approach is based on prioritizing the tests by risks by risk level. Each risk is specified with its corresponding test(s), starting with the risk of highest priority first.

Q4) What is Decision table based testing and when it is used?

Decision table testing is used for testing those systems for which the specifications takes the form of cause-effect combinations or rules. Here, in the decision tables, all the inputs are listed in a column, and just below the each input, its corresponding output is maintained.

In the remaining table, combinations of various inputs are defined along with their produced outputs.

Q5) Expand and explain CMM.

CMM stands for Capability Maturity Model for Software. It is also represented as SW-CMM. It is a model that judges the maturity of the software processes of an organization and identifies the key practices that can be used for increasing the maturity of these processes, for the betterment of the organization.

Q6) Elaborate PDCA cycle.

PDCA stands for Plan-Do-Check-Act cycle. As we are aware of the fact that Software testing is a vital part of the software development process. So P-D-C-A are actually the 4 important steps that are used in a normal software development.

  • Plan: This step defines the objective and a proper plan to achieve the objective.
  • Do: This step is also called ‘Execute’. During the planning stage, a plan strategy is finalized, which is executed accordingly in this phase.
  • Check: This step is also called ‘Test’. This one keeps a check on the process and ensure that plan is being followed properly and desired result is being generated.
  • Act: If in the above check, any issue or abnormality is found, then it means that need of taking appropriate action is there. Sometimes, the whole plan is also revised.
Q7) How do you differentiate these three testing – white box, black box, gray box?
  • Black box testing – It is a testing strategy that is based completely on the specifications and requirements. No knowledge of structures or internal paths is needed here in this strategy.
  • White box testing – It is a testing strategy that is based on code structures, internal paths and implementation of the software being tested. The White box tester must have detailed programming skills.
  • Gray Box testing – It is a testing strategy in which we thoroughly look into the box that is being tested to have a proper understanding of its implementation. Then we need to choose more effective black box tests using our knowledge.
Q8) What are the steps involved in testing policy?

Mainly four steps are involved in testing policy.

  • Definition: It’s for defining one unique testing definition within the organization so that everyone follows the same testing only.
  • How to achieve: This step includes the way to achieve the objective. Few things are being considered here like committee to do the testing, mandatory test plans, etc.
  • Evaluate: After testing, the next step is evaluating. This adds value to the project.
  • Standards: In this step, the focus is on the standards that are needed to be achieved by testing.
Q9) What is Equivalence Class and Equivalence Partitioning?
  • Equivalence Class – It is a portion of an input of the component for which the component’s behavior is assumed to be similar as that of the component’s specification.
  • Equivalence Partitioning – It is a technique for component’s test case designing. Here test cases are designed to execute representatives from the equivalence classes.
Q10) Define Inspection.

Inspection is basically a check-up process. It is a quality improvement process for the writing material, considered as a group review.
Basically two aspects involve under this –product improvement and process improvement.

Q11) What is Bottom Up Testing?

Bottom Up Testing is an approach to do the integration testing. Here, firstly, the test is done for the lowest level components, then the higher level components are being facilitated.

Q12) What RAD stands for? Explain it in your words.

RAD stands for Rapid Application Development. It is an integration for parallel development of functions & subsequent integration. The functions are developed in parallel and the developments are then time-boxed, delivered, and assembled into the working prototypes.

This helps customers to see the progress at the early level, and thus he can give a quick feedback regarding their requirements. Using this method, rapid alteration and development of the product is possible.

Q13) What do you understand by usability testing?

Usability testing – It is a testing methodology for the ease of customers. Here the end customers are asked to use the software to evaluate if the product is up to the mark and is easy to use. This puts forth the customer’s perception too. It is recommended to use the prototype or mock-up software during the initial stages so as to finalize the customer point of view of usability. The customer is provided with this prototype before the development begins. This helps in confirming that things are being processed keeping user’s point of view in mind.

Q14) Is there any difference between testing tools and testing techniques?


Yes, the difference is there.

  • Testing Tool – It is for performing the test process. This testing tool is a resource to the tester, but it is insufficient to conduct testing.
  • Testing technique – It is a process for ensuring that some aspects of the application unit or system are functioning properly.
Q15) What are the different Agile Development Model methodologies?

Total 7 different agile methodologies are there.

  • Extreme Programming (XP)
  • Agile Unified Process
  • Crystal
  • Dynamic Systems Development Model
  • Lean Software Development
  • Scrum
  • Feature-Driven Development
Q16) What is QA (Quality Assurance)?

Under Quality Assurance, all the planned actions that are necessary to provide enough confidence about the product are kept in mind. It maintains the desired quality level of the product or service.

Q17) Define Quality Circle and Quality Control.
  • Quality Circle – It is actually a group of individuals, all having a similar interest. They meet at regular intervals to discuss consider problems related to the quality of outputs and to discuss about correcting the problems so as to improve on the quality of the product.
  • Quality Control – It includes the operational activities and the techniques that are used for verifying the requirements of quality.
Q18) In which phase, number of defects are more – designing phase or coding phase?

It will be more in the designing phase than the coding phase.

One of the major and most frequently occurring defect is that the product does not cover the complete customer requirements.
Another defect can be a wrong architecture.

Third one is technical decision.

This way, the design phase is the most critical phase.

Q19) Which testing model is best as per your understanding, and why?

Tailored models are considered the best out of all as they consist of all the best features of the Waterfall, Iterative, and other testing models. The tailored model can easily fit into the real life projects. They are also considered the most productive.
But if the case is that it’s a pure testing project, then in such case, the V model is the best model.

Q20) What do you mean by monkey testing?

Monkey Testing – In this type of testing, the data ares often generated on random basis using an automated mechanism or some tool. The system is tested with this randomly generated input data. But this testing is less reliable, so it is generally used by the beginners. Monkey testing is also called Random testing.

Q21) What are the main phases or steps of a formal review?

There are basically 6 phases involved in a formal review. They are cited below in a sequence:

  • Planning
  • Kick-off
  • Preparation
  • Review meetings
  • Rework
  • Follow-ups.
Q22) Differentiate between positive and negative testing.
  • Positive testing – This testing aims at showing software works. This is also called – “test to pass”.
  • Negative testing – This testing aims at showing software that does not work. This one is also called – “test to fail”.
Q23) What is configuration management?

Configuration management – It is a detailed recording and also updating information for software and hardware components. A track record of changes in the requirement, designing or test cases is also maintained under this.

It is always said to follow a process while executing and changing. But when the changes are being done in an Adhoc manner, then the chances of occurring of chaotic situations rise up and also chances of defects also increase.

Therefore, changes should be done with proper planning and in a controlled manner. Also tracking of proper version should be done so that in case if needed, we should be able to revert back to the previous version.

Q24) What role does the moderator plays in review process?

The moderator is also called as the review leader. Their role is to lead the review process. The review leader performs the entry check, and also performs the follow-up on the rework. All this is done to control the quality of the input & output of the review process.

Another role of a moderator is to schedule the meetings, circulate the documents before the meeting, and to store the data that are being collected through these meetings and discussions.

Q25) What are the types of impact ratings in a project?

There are three types of impact ratings in a project – Minor, Major and Critical.

  • Minor: It is having a very low impact, thus it does not affect the operations on a large scale.
  • Major: It actually affects the operations on a very large scale.
  • Critical: This one is the most critical of all. It brings the system to a halt and thus stops the whole show.
Q26) Define Quality Audit.

Quality Audit – It is a systematic examination to determine whether all is going as planned, i.e. whether the goal and plans are strictly followed. It is an independent examination.

Q27) What is Verification, and what are its two types?

Verification – It is defined as the static type of software. The product is assessed by going through the code.
The code is not executed under this step. Types of verification are Walkthrough and Inspection.

  • Walkthrough: These are informal. These are initiated by the author of the software product so as to locate the max possible defects and thus work in suggesting the correcting and improving way. Walkthroughs are generally unplanned.
  • Inspection: It is a thorough checking of a software product word-by-word. The intention is locating the defects, and confirming the best implementation of the planned strategy as per the specified requirements.
Q28) At what time, Regression Testing should be performed?

Regression testing should be done only after either the software has changed or the environment. The changes may also include configuration change and software enhancements too.

Q29) Explain the following testings : – Unit Testing, Integration Testing, System Testing & Acceptance Testing?
  • Unit testing – Testing that is performed on a single and a stand-alone module (or unit module) is called Unit testing.
  • Integration testing – This comes after Unit testing. It is a testing is performed on groups of modules. This testing ensures that the data and control are properly passed between modules.
  • System testing – System testing is for predetermined combining of tests. When these are executed successfully, requirements should meet.
  • Acceptance testing – This testing ensures that the system meets the needs of both the customer(s) as well as the organization too. It validates whether the right system is built.
Q30) Define test log.

Test log – It is a document that contains the sequential record of the relevant details about the test cases and their execution.

Q31) Throw some light on BVA.

BVA’s expansion is Boundary Value Analysis. It is a software testing technique. This one is quite similar to Equivalence Partitioning, except of the fact that it is putting more focus on corner cases. By corner cases, we mean the out of range values.

Q32) Define Test bed.

Test Bed – It is basically a test execution environment that is configured for testing. It consists of Operating System, specific software and hardware, application software, network configuration and the product that is needed to be tested.

Q33) Tell the five common problems that come in the path of software development process.
  • Unclear or poor requirements
  • Unfeasible working schedule
  • Insufficient testing
  • Lack of communication between developer and customer
  • Change in requirements from the end user, when the development is already done or in midway.
Q34) What is your definition of a ‘good design’.

It should include the following features as per my knowledge:

  • The overall structure should be clear.
  • Robustness – capable enough for handling the errors.
  • Proper functioning of product or service.
  • Easy maintenance.
  • Easy to operate and to modify too (in case of new requirements from customer’s end).
Q35) How can we test for drastic (severe) memory leakages?

By using Endurance testing, we can achieve it. Endurance testing is a non-functional type of software testing. It checks for memory leakage or other related problems that may occur over an extended period of time. Another name for this testing is Soak testing.

Whenever a system, product or service is developed, testing needs to be done compulsorily. It is an essential part that needs to be focused on. It keeps a check on various things like whether the product is meeting the customer’s requirements, whether it is able to take and respond well to all kinds of inputs, following the timing guidelines, and much more. Software testing helps in efficiently dealing with this section.

Due to the advantages it offers, companies, today, are following Software testing very strictly. The demand of proficient software testers has also increased in the last few years. We have come up with the best and trending questions that are frequently being asked in the interviews. These will help you in getting the top-notch baggage in an IT giant or any of your dream IT companies in the Software Testing sector.

Your feedback, as well as the addition of the more relevant questions, are equally welcome!

Manual Testing Interview Questions and answers:

Q36)Which is prepared at the end of testing or once after the testing process for an application is completed?

A) Test Summary report

B) Test plan

C) Test Strategy

Answer A

Q37)How quick the defective part of the application is to be resolved is

A) Priority

B) Severity

Answer: A

Q38)How quick the defective part of the application is to be resolved is

A) Priority

B) Severity

Answer: B

Q39)What measures the quality and the completeness of the software product

A) Test Metrics

B) Test estimation techniques

Answer – A

Q40)In which software estimation technique the optimistic, Pessimistic and most likely estimate are conducted

A) Three-Point Estimation

B) Delphi method

C) Work Breakdown Structure

Answer => C

Q41)The future uncertain event which leads to loss is called as

A) Risks

B) Error

C) Defect

Answer => A

Q42)Which document defines the approach of the testing derived from the requirement document

A) Test Strategy

B) Test plan

Answer: A

Q43)Which testing is done to ensure that the application or a module is working fine after the bug is resolved, change is design and requirement and after new functionality is added?

Regression testing

Q44)In which type of testing, both GUI and client-server architecture is tested?

A) Web Testing

B) Regression

C) Sanity

Answer: A

Q45)Which type of testing is done at the release level, testing only the critical functionality of an application?

Answer: Sanity Testing

Q46)In which type of testing, major functionality of an application if testing is testing and is done at the building level

Answer: Smoke Testing

Q47)Which defines the relationship between the test cases and the requirements?

Requirement Traceability matrix

Q48)Which is called the repository where the requirements and the details to be tracked on the no. of requirements to be during to be completed?

Product Backlog

Q49)Which is a regular repeatable work cycle in scrum methodology during which work is completed and made for review is done?

Answer: Scrum Sprint

Q50)In which testing type a dummy program for a calling function or the function to be tested are created?

Integration testing, in both of its types, Bottom-up and Top-Down approach which uses Test drivers and Test Stub

Q51)In which type of testing, a dry run activity is done between UAT and production, and helps in early detection of bugs?

Pilot Testing

Q52)————- is called the distribution of the defects into the particular region of an application but not across the application.

Answer: Defect clustering

Q53)—————————– is called the no. of. Defect conformed in the software or a module during a specific period of development divided by size of the software or a module.

Answer: Defect density

Q54)In which type of testing, multiples users' access to the application at the same time and perform similar action which helps in identifying deadlock.

Answer: Concurrence testing

Q55)In which type of testing, all the possible data combinations are used as an input to validate the efficiency of an application.

Answer: Exhaustive Testing

Q56)What monitors the quality of the software process to give the best quality of the product?

Test Metrics

Q57)What cross checks if the planned arrangements are implemented or not to determine the quality of activities.

Answer: Quality Audit Q58)When software or an application is given to the testing team with the known set of bugs in the application in current release is called the ————-” open=”no” style=”default” icon=”plus” anchor=”” class=””]

Bug Release

Q59)When an application is released with the bugs which should be rectified by the testing team, but missed and confirmed/ found by the customer or end use is called ———-

Bug Leakage

Q60)When one error or an bug hides another error or a bug then it is called ———-

Fault masking

Q61)Which is the process of evaluating the software application at development phase to decide if it meets all the specified requirements is called ———-


Q62)Which is the process of evaluating the software application at the end of development phase to check if it meets the customer requirements then it is called


Q63)Which testing is called running a product through a series of specific tests which determines if the product or an application will meet the need of users is called

User Acceptance Testing

Q64)Which is an existing defect in the software application which does not affect or cause any failure as the exact set of conditions has never been met are called

Latent defect

Q65)What are the 2 kinds of metrics, which determines the quality of the test execution?

Defect Leakage Ratio and Defect Leakage Ratio

Q66)When one defect is caused due to the occurrence of another defect then it is called

Defect Cascading

Q67)What kind of testing is done without planning and documentation, which allows the tester to break the application by randomly testing system functionality?

Adhoc Testing

Q68)———- is the collection of software and test data configured to test the application by running it under different conditions that involves validating the output with expected result.

Answer: Test Harness

Q69)Which helps in measuring the amount of testing performed by the set of test cases.” open=”no” style=”default” icon=”plus” anchor=”” class=””]

Test Coverage

Q70)Lowest level modules are tested first and then high-level modules and finally integrating the high-level modules to a low level to ensure the system is working as intended is called?

Top-Down Approach of Integration testing

Q71)Which type of testing is carried out by the client or the outsourcing team in tester’s and developer’s presence?

Alpha testing

Q72)Which type of testing is performed in order to determine how quickly the system can recover after the system crash or hardware failure?

Recovery testing

Q73)Which is the process of designing a software application so that it can be adapted to various languages and regions without any changes?

Globalization testing

Q74)Which type of testing is carried out by providing various input random data to the system in an attempt to make it crash to identify if anything breaks in the application?

Stress testing

Q75)Which testing is carried out by testing all the functionalities using all the valid/invalid input and preconditions?

Exhaustive testing

Q76)A defect that is not allowing the user to continue further with testing the software application is defined as?

The show stopper

Q77)———– is performed to validate if the individual modules are connecting properly as per the specifications or not?

Interface Testing

Q78)How the tester should deal with the reproducible bugs?
  1. Clear all caches and cookies and retest the test cases.
  2. Keep consider the other facts like test data, environment, system settings, screenshots
  3. Once an issue is found, verify the same issue on different browsers, operating systems, different devices which helps in determining if an issue is a system or browser-specific/ device-specific.
Q79)How the tester should deal with the non – reproducible bugs?

Check if it occurs when we re-start the application

Check the test environment

Inform about the issue to other team members and stake holders

Q80)How to deal with the slippage in the defect or the bugs?

If the number of defects occurred in the application is more than the defined limit then it is called the bug or defect slippage.

The formula to calculate is QF = FC/FS, Where QF>1

Q80)What type of testing included testing the databases, API, servers

Backend Testing

Q81)——————- is carried out where input values can be divided into ranges and are defined in such a way that only one condition from each range partition is considered for testing, assuming that all the other conditions of the same partition will behave the same for the software.

Equivalence Partitioning.

Q82)Which is a testing technique that identifies the errors at the boundaries rather than within the range values.

Boundary Value Analysis

Q83)Which is the process of adding known faults intentionally in a program for the reason of monitoring the rate of detection & removal and also to estimate the number of faults remaining in the program.

Error seeding

Q84)Which is the test case design technique where the tester has to guess what faults might occur and to design the tests to represent them.

Error Guessing


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