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Pega Interview Questions and Answers

Pega Interview Questions and Answers

Pega Interview Questions and Answers

Pega Interview Questions and Answers for beginners and experts. List of frequently asked Pega Interview Questions with answers by Besant Technologies. We hope these Pega interview questions and answers are useful and will help you to get the best job in the networking industry. This Pega interview questions and answers are prepared by Pega Professionals based on MNC Companies expectation. Stay tune we will update New Pega Interview questions with Answers Frequently. If you want to learn Practical Pega Training then please go through this Pega Training in Chennai.

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Here are the list of most frequently asked Pega Interview Questions and Answers in technical interviews. These questions and answers are suitable for both freshers and experienced professionals at any level. The questions are for intermediate to somewhat advanced Pega  professionals, but even if you are just a beginner or fresher you should be able to understand the answers and explanations here we give.

UI and Property In PEGA

1. What is a defer load? Is it possible to defer load the values in a drop-down?

Defer load means, suppose u can use any tabbed Section in that situation u want to load the data on each tab u can write one activity to retrieve data, then a large amount of data will be loaded in clipboard, Its a performance hit to load the more data in clipboard, So in that situation we can use Defer load option it will prevent performance because while u Check the Defer load option it will ask some activity on each tab Cell properties, so whenever the particular tab is opened then relevant activity only will be fired and load the related data…So it will Avoid the performance. Yes we can load the values in dropdown

Declare Pages In PEGA

2. Advantages and limitations of declare page?

The main Advantage of the Declare pages is, It prevents the multiple DB hits , Suppose is there multiple requestors in that node whenever first user login into the application then load activity will be fired and create a declare page and then loaded the data in that page, requestors who can on that node will show this declare page and use the data on that page.
The Disadvantages are its read-only to the requestors, and can not add the additional data and can’t delete the specific data.

3. Difference between declare page and regular pages?

Declare pages are created through declarative rules, Declare keyword must be specified while creating a declare page, Declare pages are read-only pages, These pages Can’t delete, update directly.
User pages are created through page new method in an activity, these pages can be updated, deleted directly, these pages automatically deleted once logout from the system.

Declarative Rules

4. Difference types of declarative rules present?

Declare Expressions, Declare Constraints, Declare On change, Declare trigger, Declare Index.

 

5. How do u specify if expression triggers forward or backward chaining?

In the Chain tracking tab.

 

6.How between chaining process works in Pega? (Goal Seek)

It will search the first on dependency network After checking the dependency the execution Starts from Lower expression to higher expression. In Activity, u can use goal-seek-property to find the missing value of the property.

Reports In PEGA

7. What type of Reporting features are provided by Pega?

List View and Summary View

 

8. What is the difference between ListView and SummaryView ?

A summary view rule defines a two-level report display, presenting summary counts, totals or averages to be displayed initially, and allowing users to click a row to drill down to supporting detail for that row. Summary view rules support interactive charts, trend reports, and the use of AJAX for pop-up Smart Info windows.
A summary view rule is an instance of the Rule-Obj-SummaryView rule type. This rule type is part of the Reports category.
A list view rule, an instance of the Rule-Obj-ListView rule type, defines a report. Users can personalize list view reports easily and interact with them. Use the Report wizard to define list view reports and link them to our portal.

 

9. How to call a listview from an Activity?

In an activity, the Obj-List-View can execute a list view rule.

 

10. What is Paging in a listview?

To divide the ListView into different pages and set the number of records to be displayed on a page.

 

11. What is exposing a property?

Exposing a property means to make a property as a separate independent column so that it can be used in SQL queries and as a criteria in reporting.

 

12. How to expose a single value property?

Process Commander stores the values of all aggregate properties and some Single Value properties in a BLOB column (the Storage Stream) usually in a compressed form. Such properties cannot support selection in list view and summary view reports and can slow retrieval and processing in other operations

  • Select Tools > Database > Modify Database Schema.
  • A list of databases identified in Database data instances appears. Select a database and click Next.
  • A list of tables in the selected database appears from Database Table instances. Select a table.
  • Click Explore Columns.
  • The resulting List of Classes window displays the number of rows in the table, the number of columns in the table and a list of the classes assigned to that table. The Properties Set to Be Visible value counts the properties for which the Column Inclusion value is Required or Recommended. This Column Inclusion value is advisory and does not indicate whether the property is exposed — corresponds to a column. The Count column shows the total count of properties in this class plus those its parent classes.
  • To see the columns currently defined in this table, click the numeric link labeled Number of columns in this table.
  • The List of Database Columns window shows the column name, column data type, and column width in bytes for each column in the table.

 

13. How to expose aggregate property?

Declare Index rule is a better approach.

  • Create a concrete class derived from the Index-base class.
  • Create Single Value properties in the new class to hold the values of the embedded values.
  • Create a Declare Index rule with the appropriate embedded Page Context value that copies the embedded values into a new Index-instance.
  • Save the Declare Index rule. It executes immediately, adding and deleting instances of the new class.
  • Expose database columns corresponding to the Index-class.
  • Reference the Index- properties in the list view rule.

 

14. Can we refer the property without exposing in Reports?

We can refer the properties in Display tab without exposing. But we can’t refer the property without exposing in Criteria fields of the Content tab.

15. What is the activity responsible for getting the data in List View?

GetContent Activity

 

16. What the class of getContent Activity?

Embed-ListParams class.

 

17. Can or have you customize the getContent Activity?

Yes

 

18. How to customize the getContent Activity?

Step1: Create Activity in Our Class and create the New page
Step2: write a query and store invariable.
Step3: call the listview as Call Rule-Obj-ListView
Step4: Write another activity in Embed-ListParams
Step5: create the parameter. This parameter gets the SQL query from the previous activity.
Step6: write Java method The java code in this method is Get the page from pyContentPage if a page already exists. If a page is not available it creates the new ContentPage.
In this code get the SQL query from the above parameter and pass this query and above created ContentPage as parameters to this tools.getDatabase().executeRDB(query, page name) method.

 

19. How do we get the data from the two different tables?

Using Join tab in Reports

 

20. How do we fetch the data from two different tables without using two different tables?

Write a database View. In this view logically combine the Two different tables. Create a class for this logically combined Table. Write the ListView. Applies to class is class of the Combined table. So we can refer the properties of both the tables in list view.

 

21. What is the use of HTML property in ListView?

HTML Property rules appear in list view and summary view rules to define the appearance of values in reports.

 

22. Consider this scenario: I need to generate a list view report of all the work objects created on a particular date and then I need to include this list view in a section. How can this be done?

Select .pxCreateDateTime ( an exposed property ) under criteria and give the value you are looking for. To include it in a section, check the embedded checkbox and customize the HTML of the section. In that, we need to access the list view in a JSP tag or In the section, Property is DisplayAs ListView.

 

23. What is the difference between List View and Obj-List?

List view is generally used for complex queries where sorting is required and also we can retrieve less information using Paging.

 

24. Explain in brief the configuration of a list view?

List view (an instance of Rule-Obj-ListView ) is used to define a custom report or personal version of a report.

A list view can be configured as follows:

  • Applies to a class of list view will be taken as the database table map for the search criteria.
  • Display fields tab is used to depict the fields that are displayed along with category and to enable/disable sorting.
  • The content tab is used to depict the criteria, fields to be retrieved, the key of each row (if selected) and Report source (Page name where the values should be saved and the activity to be called).
  • In the organize tab we specify to enable/disable paging, page size, mode, alignment etc.
  • We can also configure additional buttons and their fragments here.
  • Format tab is used to depict the formatting of the list (like even/odd coloring) and details on single click etc.
  • The list view can be accessed from an activity or HTML as follows:
  • Call Rule-Obj-List View. Show View activity with the class name and list view name as parameters

– <pega: ListView name=” {name of list view}” classname= “{Class name of list view}”>

A list view can be used for complex retrievals from the database by not specifying the display, format and Organize table. Action, in that case, would perform instead of refresh.

25. Explain in brief about the configuration of a summary view?

Summary views are used to create reports which are grouped by certain criteria and can be later drilled down.

A Summary view can be configured as follows:

  • Applies to the class of summary view will be taken as the database table map for the search criteria
  • The category is used to know under which tab the report should come.
  • Criteria are used in the where the class (this can be asked to a user by enabling prompt user)
  • Group by and field functions (like count) are used for initial display. If we have more than one group by it is Displayed one after another on clicking +
  • Drill down fields are used to display the fields when we click on the assignment.
  • The format is used to tell how to format the display and charts can also be used.

The summary view can be accessed from an activity or HTML as follows:

– Call Rule-Obj-ListView.ShowView activity with the class name and summary view name as parameters
– <pega: SummaryView name=”{name of summary view}” classname={Class name of summary view}”>

26. Difference between list Obj-list-view results and obj-browse?

We can retrieve instances from multiple classes by using the obj-list-view, In obj-browse, we can retrieve only Single Class Instances.

Agents In PEGA

27. What is an Agent?

An agent is an internal background process operating on the server that runs activities on a periodic basis. Agents route work according to the rules in our application.
Agents also perform system tasks such as sending e-mail notifications about assignments and outgoing correspondence, generating updated indexes for the full-text search feature, synchronizing caches across nodes in multiple node systems, and so on.

28. How do we create an Agent?

New à SysAdmin à Agents. Rule Set name is the Agent name. The agent is an instance of Rule-Agent-Queue.

29. Do we need to create Agent Schedule?

No. Agent schedules cannot be created manually. The Agent Manager on our Process Commander system generates at least one agent schedule instance for each agent rule.
By default, the Agent Manager checks for new or updated agents rule once every ten minutes. After we create an agents rule, the Agent Manager generates one Agent Schedule instance for each node running on your Process Commander system the next time it checks for new agents rules.

30. Do we need to migrate Agent Schedule to other environments?

No

31. What is the Agent running time intervals?

Each agent activity runs individually on its own interval schedule, as a separate requestor thread.
Periodic — The agent runs the activity and then “sleeps” for the number of seconds entered in the Interval column.
Recurring — The agent runs the activity based on a specified calendar schedule (for example, every Monday at 5:00 P.M.).

32. What are the Agent Running modes?

Queue mode indicates whether the agent uses the agent queue capability to process items from the agent queue. This feature allows the agent to temporarily skip over items that fail — for example, because a needed resource is locked and try again later to process the item later. Standard — Specifies that this agent processes items from an agent queue and that it relies on the system to provide object locking and other transnational support.

Advanced — Specifies that this agent uses custom queuing
Legacy — specifies that this is an agent that was created in a version prior to V5.4 and has not yet been updated. This option is not available for agents created in V5.4 or later.

33. What is the use of referring Access Group in Agents?

Agent activity calls another activity. This called activity may not appear in agent rule set. So setup of the Rule setlist and Roles by providing Access group in security Tab.
Select the access group to use for the legacy and advanced agents listed in this rule. This field is ignored for agents with a type of Standard.

34. How do we Troubleshoot or Trace an Agent?

  • < env name=”agent/enable” value=”true” />
    Verify the above tag in prconfig file. Value of the above tag is true or false.
  • In Agent Schedule, schedule tab verifies the checkbox Enable this agent is Checked or Not. And also verify the Enabled? The checkbox is checked or Not.
  • The same thing also checks in Agents Rule.
  • In Tracer, we can trace the particular operator or particular Agent.
  • In prsysmgmt portal, In Agent Management select the particular Agent and Delay the Agent and then run the Tracer.
  • We can use the Agent Management link in the System Management Application to monitor and control agent processing. The agent runs on different nodes, select the particular node and run the Tracer.

35. What are the Agents for SLA and Correspondence?

The agents in the Pega-ProCom RuleSet process e-mail, service level rules, and assignments, archive work objects, and so on.

The agents in this rule provide the following types of processing:

  • Processing service level events and escalation. Applying a flow action to assignments in bulk. Sending out e-mail correspondence
  • Archiving and purging work objects, attachments, and history
  • Retrieving PDF files from the PegaDISTRIBUTION Manager
  • Running tests defined through the optional Automatic Testing facility
  • Checking incoming e-mail
  • The activity System-Queue-ServiceLevel.ProcessEvents supports service level processing for both assignments and work objects.
  • The activity Data-Corr-.Send supports outgoing e-mail if your system contains one or more Email Account data instances with a second key part of Notify.

36. Who will create Data-Agent-Queue?

The Agent Manager is a master agent that gathers and caches the agent configuration information set for our system when Process Commander starts. Then, at a regularly scheduled interval, it determines whether any new agents rules were created during the last period. If there are new agents rules, the Agent Manager adds them to its list of agents and generates agent schedule data instances for them for each node.

 

37. What are the Standard Agents?

Our system includes three standard agents rules. Because these agents rules are in locked RuleSets, we cannot modify them. To change the configuration settings for the agents listed in these rules, update the agent schedules generated by the agents rule.

Pega-IntSvcs,
Five agents in the Pega-IntSvcs RuleSet process queued service and connector requests and perform maintenance for PegaDISTRIBUTION MANAGER (formerly called Correspondence Output Server, or COS).

Pega-ProCom,
The agents in the Pega-ProCom RuleSet process e-mail, service level rules, and assignments, archive work objects, and so on.

The agents in this rule provide the following types of processing:

  • Processing service level events and escalation
  • Applying a flow action to assignments in bulk
  • Sending out e-mail correspondence
  • Archiving and purging work objects, attachments, and history
  • Retrieving PDF files from the PegaDISTRIBUTION Manager
  • Checking incoming e-mail (deprecated in V5.3)

Pega-RULES

The agents in the Pega-RULES RuleSet perform general system housecleaning and periodic processing.

The agents in this rule provide the following processing:

  • System Cleaner
  • System Pulse
  • System Indexer
  • Rule Usage Snapshot
  • Static Content Cleaner
  • System Work Indexer

38. What is the use of Data-Agent-Queue?

When you need to modify the behavior of an agent listed in an agents rule in a locked RuleSet (any of the standard Process Commander agents rules, for example) you do so by editing one or more of the generated

Service Level Agreements(SLA)

39. What is a Service Level Agreement?

A service level rule is an instance of the Rule-Obj-ServiceLevel type. Each service level rule defines one to three-time intervals, known as goals, deadlines, and late intervals, that indicate the expected or targeted turnaround time for the assignment, or time-to-resolve for the work object. The gaol time is the smallest time interval, the deadline time is a longer interval, and the late interval defines post-deadline times. Each time interval is in days, hours, minutes, and seconds.

40. What are the types of SLA? Where can they be defined?

Service level rules can be associated with a work object or an assignment.

For assignments, the service level rule is referenced in the Assignment Properties panel of the assigned task.

For the overall work object, the service level rule is identified in the standard property .pySLAName, typically set up through a model for the class. (The default value is the Default service level.)

41. How do we do Escalation?

Escalation refers to any processing within a Process Commander application that causes high-priority work objects to become visible to users and managers and to be processed sooner rather than later. The numeric property known as urgency determines the order that assignments for that work object appear on worklists. Escalation recalculates the urgency value to reflect its age, impending due date, or explicit management inputs.

Escalation can occur through a service level rule associated with the flow and through background processing by the Pega-ProCom agent.

42. What is SLA’s, how are they different from Agents?

A service level rule is an instance of the Rule-Obj-ServiceLevel type. The service level can define a goal and a deadline times for processing an assignment and can execute activities if the goal or the deadline is not met. This assignment-level service level is distinct from any service level associated with the entire flow. At runtime, an internal countdown clock (measuring the completion of the assignment against the goal and deadline times computed from the service level rule) starts when the assignment task is created. An agent is a background internal requestor operating on the server. These requestors can periodically monitor conditions and perform processing as necessary. Most agents are defined by an Agent Queue rule (Rule-Agent-Queue), which includes a list of the activities they perform.

43. How to implement SLA’s? Is it possible to define an SLA for the entire work object? If yes, how?

SLA’s are always associated with an assignment. Just drag an SLA shape and provide an instance of Rule-Obj-ServiceLevel.
Yes, SLA can be defined for the entire work object by defining it in the model. The property for this is pySLAName.

44. How to restrict a flow to particular users?
By using privileges and when conditions under the process tab of the flow instance.

Flow Actions In PEGA

45. What are the types of Flow Actions?

A flow action rule controls how users interact with work object forms to complete assignments. Each flow action is defined by an instance of the Rule-Obj-FlowAction rule type.
Flow actions are of two types:

Connector flow actions appear as lines on Visio presentation in the Diagram tab of a flow rule. A line exits from an assignment shape and ends at the next task in the flow. At runtime, users choose a connector flow action, complete the assignment, and advances the work object along the connector to the next task.

A local flow action, when selected at runtime, causes the assignment to remain open and on the current user’s work list. Local flow actions are recorded in the Assignment Properties panel and are not visible on the Visio flow diagram.

 

46. What is the Difference between Connector Flow Action and Local Flow Action?

A local flow action permits users at runtime to update, but not complete, an assignment. Local flow actions always are optional. Users may perform none, one, or multiple local flow actions, or repeat a local flow action multiple times.

At runtime, users choose a connector flow action, complete the assignment, and advances the work object along the connector to the next task.

47. Explain about Pre Activity?

At runtime, the system runs this activity before it does other processing for this flow action. This activity is not visible on the Visio flow diagram. This activity executes only once, the first time a user selects this flow action for this assignment.

48. Explain about Post Activity?

Activity to run after other successful processing of this flow action.

For screen flow rules By default, when this flow action appears as a step in a screen flow rule, and the user at runtime clicks away to a different step in the screen flow rule, this activity rule does not run. To cause this activity to execute when the user clicks away to a different step, select the Post Action on Click Away? a checkbox on the Assignment shape properties panel.

49. Explain about Local Flow Action?

A local flow action permits users at runtime to update, but not complete, an assignment. Like connector flow actions, local flow actions are referenced inside an assignment task in a flow.

At runtime, users can select local flow actions to update assignment or work object properties, change the assignee, and so on but do not complete the assignment. If a service level rule is associated with the assignment, the service level continues to run.

Local flow actions always are optional. Users may perform none, one, or multiple local flow actions, or repeat a local flow action multiple times. On the Action tab of the Flow Action form, we can mark a flow action rule as local, or connector, or both.

50. How do we make one Local Action available in all Assignments?

On the Design tab of the Flow form, we can list local flow actions that are to be available at every assignment in the flow.

Property’s In PEGA

51. What is the Property?

  • A Property is an instance of the Rule-Obj-Property rules type.
  • The property defines and labels a value that can be associated with a class.
  • For instances contained in the database, a property often corresponds to a relational database column.

 

52. What are the Property Modes?

SingleArray or ListGroup
Value modesSingle ValueValue ListValue Group
Page modesPagePage ListPage Group
Java Object modeJava ObjectJava Object ListJava Object Group
Java Property modesJava PropertyJava Property List

 

53. Explain with an example the difference between Rule-Edit-Input and Rule-Edit-Validate?

Edit input rules are instances of the Rule-Edit-Input class. They are part of the Property category.

  • An Edit Input rule provides a conversion facility.
  • Use Edit Input rules to convert data entered by a user (or received from an external system) from a format that our application doesn’t use into another format.
  • Edit input rules perform conversions, not validations. This rule type does not cause any response to a userabout the validity of the input.
  • Edit input rules use Java code for the conversion.
  • We can reference an edit input rule in the Edit Input Value field on the Property form.

Edit validate rules are instances of the Rule-Edit-Validate class. They are part of theProperty category.

  • Use the Edit Validate form to define a Java routine that tests the validity of an input value in an activity that processes user input.
  • Properties rule (of mode Single Value, Value List or Value Group) may reference an edit validate rule on the Advanced tab.
  • Use the Property-Validate method in an activity to execute the edit validate rule when a value is submitted through a user input form.

 

54. How Rule-Edit-Validate is different from Rule-Obj-Validate?

Edit Validate is to validate a single property at a time but obj validate rules are used to validate all the properties in a single go. Obj-Validate method is used for this purpose.

 

55. How one single property can be represented in different forms on a screen?

By using HTML Properties at the section level, not at the property level.

 

56. Consider this scenario : I have a property of type decimal, I need to restrict it to two decimal places only. How easily this can be done?

By using a qualifier “pyDecimal Precision” under Qualifiers tab.

 

57. How to implement dynamic select and smart prompt? What’s the major difference between them?

Implementation of Dynamic Select:

  • In properties panel select Display As is DynamicSelect.
  • Write Activity for generating Dynamic Select.
  • By using Show-Page method display the data in XML format.
  • Dynamic Select is a drop down from which we can only select a value.
  • Smart prompts acts both as a text box and a drop down.
  • Smart prompts are implemented by using ISNS_FIELDTYPE, ISNS_CLASS, ISNS_DATANODE.

 

58. What is the difference between Page and Page List property, how are they Implemented?

Page property refers to a particular class and is used to access the property of that class.

Page List Property also refers to a particular class, but it’s a collection of individual pages of the same class which can be accessed through numeric indexes.

 

59. What is HTML Property?

  • HTML Property rules are instances of the Rule-HTML-Property class. They are part of the Property category.
  • Use HTML Property rules to control how properties appear on work object forms, correspondence, and other HTML forms, for both display and for accepting user input.
  • For properties of mode Single Value an HTML Property rule may be identified in the Display Property field of the Property rule form.
  • HTML Property rules also may appear in list view and summary view rules to define the appearance of values in reports, and in harness, section, and flow action rules that define work object forms.

 

60. Explain about Special Properties?

Standard properties means all the properties in the Pega-RULESPega-IntSvcsPega-WB, and Pega-ProCom RuleSets have names start with px, py, or pz.These three prefixes are reserved. We cannot create new properties with such names. We can override these standard properties with a custom property of the same name (without changing the mode or Type).

Px: Identifies properties that are special, meaning that the values cannot be input by user input on an HTML form.

Py: Properties with names that start with py are not special, meaning that values can be input by users on an HTML form.

Pz: Properties with names that start with pz support internal system processing. Users cannot directly manipulate pz properties. our application may examine these values, but do not set them. The meaning of values may change with new product releases.

VALIDATIONS In PEGA

 A validation rule is used to validate the value against some other value. Once the validation fails the system add error message to that field in the clipboard.

61. What types of validations are there?

  • Client Side Validations
  • Server Side Validations

62. What are the Methods we have used for validations?

  • Obj-Validate–we can be referred this method in Activities and inflow actions at Validate Rule field.
  • Edit-Validate—- we can refer this in property form at the edit-validate field and in activities through property-validate method.

Note: I think Obj-Validate is used for Server Side Validation and Edit-Validate is used for Client Side Validation.

 

63. How do you add the custom message to the Property when it fails the Validation?

For this, we have to use the property.addMessage(“your message”) tag.

 

64. The message is set to the property and the checked in the clipboard also, the messages got set successfully. But the message is not displayed beside the field in the screen. Why..?

If the property has an HTML property, the tag <pega:include name =”Messages”/> tag must be included

Activities Or Methods In PEGA

65. Explain the operation of Activity-End method?

Use the Activity-End method to cause the system to End the current activity and all calling activities.

Ex: if Alpha calls Beta, which calls Gamma, which calls Delta, which performs the Activity-End method, all four activities are ended.

66. Explain about the Exit-Activity method?

The Exit-Activity method ends the current activity and returns control to the calling activity.

67. Explain about the Page-Copy method?

The page-copy method is used to copy the contents of a source clipboard page to a new or previously created destination clipboard page. The source page is not altered.
After this method completes, the destination page contains properties copied from the source page and can contain additional properties from a model.

68. Explain about the Page-New method?

The Page-New method is used to create a page on the clipboard. The new page may be a top-level page or an embedded page.
We can identify a model to initialize the newly created page. The model can set values for one or more properties.

69. Explain about Page-Remove method?

Page-Remove method is used to delete one or more pages from the clipboard. The contents of the database are not affected.

70. Explain about the Page-Set-Messages method?

Use the Page-Set-Messages method to add a message to a clipboard page. Like a message associated with a property, a message associated with a page normally prevents the page from being saved into the database.

71. Explain about Property-Set-Message?

The property-set-message method is used to associate a text message with a property or a step page. The system reads the appropriate property and adds the message to the page. We can provide the entire literal text of the message, or reference a message rule key that in turn contains message text. (Rule-Message rule type).

72. Explain about Property-Map-DecisionTable method?

Use the Property-Map-DecisionTable method to evaluate a decision table rule and save the result as the value of a property.

73. Explain about the Property-Map-DecisionTree method?

The Property-Map-DecisionTree method is used to evaluate a decision tree rule (Rule-Declare-DecisionTree rule type) and store the result as the value of a property.

74. Explain about Property-Map-Value?

The Property-Map-Value method evaluates a one-dimensional map value (Rule-Obj-MapValue rule type) defined in the parameter. The method sets the result as a value for a Single Value property.

The related method Property-Map-ValuePair works similarly for two-dimensional map values.

75. Explain about the Property-Remove method?

Property-Remove method is used to delete a property or properties and its associated value from the step page or another specified page. This does not affect the property rule, its definition.

76. Explain about the Property-Set method?

Property-Set method is used to set the value of one or more specified properties.

77. Explain about Show-HTML method?

The Show-HTML method is used to cause the activity to process an HTML rule and send the resulting HTML to a user for display by Internet Explorer. This may involve the interpretation of JSP tags (or the older directives), which can access the clipboard to obtain property values, or can insert other HTML rules, and so on.

78. Explain about Show-Page method?

The Show-Page method is used to send an XML representation of the step page to a user’s Internet Explorer browser session, as an aid to debugging.
Note: Use Show-Page and Show-Property only for debugging.

79. What is the difference between Call and Branch?

The Call instruction calls the another specified activity and executes it. When that activity completes, control returns to the calling activity. Use the Branch instruction to find another specified activity and branch to it without a return. When the system executes a Branch step, control transfers to another activity found through rule resolution. Execution of the original activity pauses. When the branched activity ends, processing of the current activity also ends. No steps after the Branch step are executed.

OBJ Methods:

What is OBJ Methods?

At runtime, five methods (Obj-Browse, Obj-Filter, Obj-List, Obj-List-View, and RDB-List), list view rules, and summary view rules use a page of the class Code-Pega-List

Code-Pega-List class as a source of search criteria and to hold output. Typically, such pages are named Results, pyQueryResultPage, or pyViewLookupList. Search results (which support rows of report output) are stored as pages in the pxResults() property, a Page List.

Code-Pega-List is a concrete class,  pages of this class exist only on the clipboard. They are never saved to the PegaRULES database.

80. Explain about Obj-List Method?

The obj-list method is used to retrieve data to the clipboard as an array of embedded pages.
This method creates one embedded page for each instance retrieved.
The Obj-List-View method often produces more efficient SQL statements and provide better performance than the Obj-List method.

81. Explain about the Obj-Browse method?

The obj-browse method is used to search instances of one class and copy the entire instances, or specified properties, to the clipboard as an array of embedded pages.
Only properties exposed as columns can be used as selection criteria. However, values of properties that are not exposed as columns, including embedded properties, can be returned.

82. Explain about Obj-List-View method?

The obj-list-view method is used to execute the retrieval and sorting operations, but not the formatting and display processing, of a list view rule. The system uses rule resolution to find the list view rule and executes it, but does not produce any HTML output display.

83. Explain about the Obj-Open method?

The obj-open method is used to open an instance stored in the PegaRULES database or in an external database linked to an external class and save it as a clipboard page.
The system uses the specified class and key fields to find and open the object and place its data into the specified step page. The system searches up the class hierarchy as appropriate to find the instance. If it finds the specified step page, the system clears any data that is on it and reuses the page. If no existing page has a name matching the specified step page, the system creates a new page.

84. Explain about the Obj-Open-By-Handle method?

Use the Obj-Open-By-Handle method only if we can determine the unique handle that permanently identifies which instance to open. Otherwise, use the Obj-Open method.

85. Explain about the Obj-Delete method?

The obj-delete method is used to delete a database instance corresponding to a clipboard page and optionally to delete the clipboard page too. We can cause the deletion to occur immediately, or until execution of a Commit method. This method can operate on objects of both internal classes (corresponding to rows in a table in the PegaRULES database) and external classes (corresponding to rows in an external relational database). The Obj-Delete method uses the class of the page to obtain the appropriate Rule-Obj-Class instance. It uses the table name, key fields, and other aspects of the class rule to mark the instance for deletion.

We can reverse or cancel a previously executed Obj-Delete method by using the Obj-Save-Cancel method.

86. Explain about the Obj-Save method?

  • The obj-save method is used to save a clipboard page to the PegaRULES database or if the page belongs to an external class save a clipboard page to an external database.
  • The Obj-Save method uses properties on the page to derive the internal key under which it will be saved.
  • This method can create a new database instance or overwrite a previous instance with that key.
  • We cannot save a page that is locked by another requestor.
  • We cannot save a page that our session does not hold a lock on (if the page belongs to a lockable class),unless the object is new, never yet saved.
  • We cannot save pages of any class derived from the Codebase class or the Embed- base class. Such pages exist only on the clipboard.

87. Explain about the Commit method?

Commit method is used to commit all uncommitted database changes. This method writes all the instances specified by one or more earlier Obj-Save methods to the PegaRULES database (for internal classes) and to external databases (for external classes).

88. Explain about the Obj-Validate method?

The obj-validate method is used to apply a validate rule (Rule-Obj-Validate rule type) for the object identified on the primary page or step page. A validate rule (Rule-Obj-Validate rule type) can call edit to validate rules (Rule-Edit-Validate rule type).

89. Explain about Obj-Sort method?

Obj-Sort method is used to sort the clipboard pages that are the values of a property of mode Page List.
We can specify one or more properties to sort on, and whether the sort sequence is ascending or descending for each sort level.

RDB Methods In PEGA

Use Connect SQL rules and RDB methods only with an external database. Do not use Connect SQL rules or RDB methods for the PegaRULES database(s). Because not all properties in the PegaRULES databases are distinct database columns, use the Obj-Open and Obj-Save methods, not the RDB- methods, with the PegaRULES database to prevent loss of data.

90. Explain about the RDB-List method?

The RDB-List method is used to retrieve rows from an external relational database and place the results as embedded pages in a specified step page of classCode-Pega-List.
This method references a Connect SQL rule instance and executes SQL statements stored in the Browse tab of that rule instance. The search can do anything we can specify in a SQL statement, such as a SELECT WHEREstatement. Any constraints on the returned data are in the SQL.

91. Explain about the RDB-Open method?

The rdb-open method is used to retrieve a single row (record) of data from an external relational database and add the retrieved data into a specified clipboard page as property names and values.
Use this method in conjunction with a Connect SQL rule that contains SQL SELECT or EXECUTE statements in the Open tab. Define the SQL statements so that the database returns exactly one row.

92. Explain about the RDB-Save method?

RDB-Save method is used to save the contents of a clipboard page into a row of a relational database. The system saves the properties on the specified step page to the specified table in the database.
This method operates in conjunction with a Connect SQL rule that contains SQL statements such as INSERT, UPDATE, and CREATE statements on the Save tab.

93. Explain about the RDB-Delete method?

The rdb-delete method is used to delete a row or rows from an external relational database using SQL.
This method operates in conjunction with an SQL statement in the Delete tab of a Connect SQL rule (Rule-Connect-SQL rule type) that contains the DELETE, TRUNCATEor DROP SQL statement.

Circumstance In PEGA

94. What is Circumstance? How does it work?

A circumstance is an optional qualification available for all rules. Using a circumstance allows our application to support multiple variants of a rule. For example, variations of an ordinary rule instance can be created for different customer status levels or for different geographic locations.
A circumstance-qualified rule instance (often referred to as a “circumstanced rule”) is always based upon an unqualified rule instance (base rule).
We can circumstance a base rule with a single property and its value, or with multiple properties and their values (called multivariate circumstancing).
The circumstanced rule is executed during rule resolution if the value of the circumstance property on the rule matches that property’s value on the clipboard at runtime.

95. How do we create the circumstance-qualified rule?

To create a circumstance-qualified rule, first, define an unqualified or base rule instance (with the Circumstance values left blank).
Then use the toolbar Save As button to create a second rule qualified by a circumstance.
If the original rule has an Applies To class as an initial key part, the circumstance-qualified rule must have the same Applies To class or a subclass derived from that class.

96. Explain about single circumstance and multivariate circumstancing?

If we use a single circumstance property, we define the property name and its value directly in the Save As form.
If we use multivariate circumstancing, two rules in the Save As form:
Circumstance Templates (Rule-Circumstance-Template rule type)
Circumstance Definitions (Rule-Circumstance-Definition rule type)

97. Explain about circumstance template rule?

Circumstance template rule is used to identify properties for multivariate circumstanced rules.

98. Explain about Circumstance definition rules?

Circumstance definition rules contain a table of values for the properties in circumstance template rules.

99. How to change Rule Availability?

To change the availability setting of a rule, click the Availability toolbar button We may need to check out the rule first. A dialog box appears. Select one of five Availability values Yes, No/Draft Mode, Blocked, Final, Withdrawn.

NOTE:

  • Class, library, RuleSet Name, and RuleSet version rules are always available. We cannot change the availability of instances of these rule types.
  • Rules in an override RuleSet cannot have availability values of Blocked orWithdrawn.

100. Explain if the Rule Availability is set as YES?

A circle and dot indicate that this rule is available. Rules with a Yes value is visible to rule resolution processing and can be executed.

101. Explain if the Rule Availability is set as No/Draft Mode?

An empty circle indicates a rule that is not available. Set the Availability of a rule toNo/Draft Mode to cause the rule to become invisible to the rule resolution algorithm for all users (including yourself), and to bypass validation of non-key fields. The No/Draft Mode setting is useful for experimentation and troubleshooting to assess the effect of two rule versions.

102. Explain if Rule Availability is set as Final?

A rule is marked as final, no one can create a second rule with the same visible key in any RuleSet other than the RuleSet that the first rule belongs to. If the RuleSet version of a final rule is locked, we cannot create a second rule with the same visible key in any RuleSet.We can override a final rule through a higher version in the same RuleSet.Many rules in the Pega-RULES and Pega-ProCom RuleSets are marked Final because correct operation of these rules is essential to ensure the integrity and security of our system. Other standard rules have the Available field set to Yes rather than Final we can override those rules in our application.
NOTE: We cannot use circumstances or time-qualified rules to override a final rule.

103. Explain if Rule Availability is set as Blocked?

A circle within an X indicates that this rule has Availability set to Blocked. Set the value of this property to Blocked if we want rule resolution processing to halt (with no rule found) when it encounters this rule. The rule form colors change from greens to grays. This is a stronger form of No/Draft because it affects all lower-numbered versions of the rule and versions (in other RuleSets) that are below this version in the user’s RuleSet list. A blocked rule does not prevent rule resolution from finding (and running) higher-numbered versions in the same RuleSet or finding rules with the same visible key in a different RuleSet that is higher on the RuleSet list.

NOTE:

Rules in an override RuleSet cannot have availability values of Blocked.

104. Explain if Rule Availability is set as Withdrawn?

A withdrawn rule is never selected by rule resolution.
Withdrawn rule masks from rule resolution any other rules which meet all of these tests:

  • The other rule belongs to the same RuleSet
  • The other rule belongs to the same major version of the RuleSet
  • The other rule has the same Applies To class (if relevant and other key parts match)
  • If circumstance-qualified is qualified with the same circumstance type and value.

NOTE: Rules in an override RuleSet cannot have availability values of Withdrawn.

Case Management

105. Explain about Work Object?

A work object is the primary unit of work completed in an application and the primary collection of data that a flow operates on. As an application is used, work objects are created, updated, and eventually closed (resolved). Every work object has a unique ID (property pyID), an urgency value, and a status (property pyStatusWork).

106. Explain about Work Object ID?

A work object ID is the permanent, external identifier of a work object. If we don’t specify a prefix (on the Details tab of the application rule), theWork-. GenerateID activity uses W- as the prefix and no suffix. The Work-Cover-.GenerateID activity uses C- as the default prefix. Conventionally, the F- prefix is used to identify folder work objects.

107. Where do we determine the prefix and suffix of the Work Object ID?
The prefix and suffix are determined by a model rule pyDefault for the work type or the class corresponding to the class group. The model is referenced on the Process tab of the flow rule that creates the work object.

Cover

108. Explain about Cover?

a cover is a work object in a concrete class derived from the Work-Cover- abstract class. A cover work object is a parent to one or a few other related work objects. Typically one work party such as the customer party is present in the cover work object and also present in all the covered work objects associated with it. The covered work objects are the children in a parent-child relationship. A cover work object provides a coordinate processing of related work objects. By default, the system prevents the resolution of a cover work object unless all of its “member” covered work objects are resolved.

109. How do we create the Cover Work Object from Activity?

Inactivity We are creating Work Object and Add to the Cover At a time By using the method AddCoveredWork.AddCoveredWork Creates a new covered work object using the primary page data. This activity assumes the cover is already locked. Due to above Reason, we have locked the cover by using Activity Obj-Refresh-And-Lock. This activity saves the new covered work object on the deferred list.

110. How are the Cover Work Objects Working?

For example, if a single customer request causes a user to create three separate work objects, these work objects may follow separate flows, be handled by separate departments, and not otherwise affect each other. The cover object provides a way to consolidate, view, and manage the outstanding service requests of this customer. After all three covered work objects become resolved, the cover work object can be resolved.

111. How the Covers as seen by application users?

Work object forms support working with covers and its covered objects:

  • Click the View Contents button ( ) at the top right of the cover work object form to access the member work objects.
  • From the ALL tab, select any single cover member work object using the drop-down list or click a row.
  • Click the yellow cover ID link to return to the cover-only display.

By convention, the work object IDs of covers have the format C-999999; basic work objects have the format W-99999.

Folders

112. Explain about Folder?

A work object folder is a work object in a concrete class that inherits from the Work-Folder- class. A folder object holds a collection of one or more other work objects (which themselves may be basic work objects, other folders, or covers) providing access for analysis and reporting. By convention, the work object ID of folders has the format F-99999.

113. How do we create a Folder by using Activity?

AddToFolder Activity Adds a work item to the folder. This activity creates a link between the work item and folder and adds appropriate status messages.

114. What is the difference between a Cover and a Folder? Which one is tightly coupled?

A cover is a work object that is also a parent to one or a few other related work objects. Internally, a cover is a work object in a concrete class derived from the Work-Cover- abstract class. A cover work object provides a means to coordinate the processing of the related work objects. Normally, the system resolves a cover work object once all its “member” covered work objects are resolved.

A folder is a work object in a concrete class that inherits from the Work-Folder- class. A folder object holds a collection of one or more other work objects (which themselves may be basic work objects, other folders, or covers) providing access for analysis and reporting, but not for primary processing. The cover is tightly coupled because a Work object can be associated with many folders but it can be associated with only one covers.

Activities

115. What are the Pega Activities we used?

  • Work-.Add Creates a new work object (without any cover work object) and performs a Commit method, which saves the work object and releases all locks.
  • Work-.Add Work Use Work-.Add Work rather than Work-.Add in situations where the Commit method is not wanted until later.
  • Add Covered Work Creates a new cover work object but does not perform a Commit method, so current locks are retained.
  • Work-.Add Covered Use Work-.Add Covered rather than Work-.Add Covered Work to commit the new work object.
  • Add Work Creates a new covered or non-covered work object. Called with a primary page that inherits from the Work- base class. Commits the new work object if there is no flow execution to start; if it starts a flow execution, the commit operation typically occurs when that flow execution creates an assignment.
  • New Called by harness processing to create a (non-covered) work object and display the work object form. New Covered Called by harness processing to create a covered work object and display the work object form. Assign-Work list Creates a normal assignment (Assign-Work list class) added to a user’s work list.
  • Assign-Workbasket Creates a normal assignment (Assign-Workbasket class) added to a workbasket. If the workbasket doesn’t exist, the assignment can be routed to the current user.
  • Notify Send an e-mail message as correspondence to a party identified through a parameter.
  • Notify All Send a single e-mail message to each work party identified in the work object. To Create Operator Route the assignment to the user who entered the work object.
  • To Workbasket Routes the assignment to a workbasket identified in a parameter. To Work list Routes the assignment to the work list of a specific user, identified in a parameter.
  • Corr New Send correspondence (that requires no user interaction) and save it as an attachment to the work object. For email output, can send all work object attachments or selected work object attachments as email attachments. The optional Priority parameter allows the outgoing mail to be marked as a high or low priority in certain e-mail client programs, such as Microsoft Outlook.
  • Assign-.New Defaults Called from Work-.New Assign and Work-.New Assign Basket on the assignment. Allows the developer to customize or extend the steps that are performed when a new assignment is created.
  • Work-.New Defaults Called from Work-.New and Work-.New Covered. Override to customize or extend the steps that are performed while creating new work page for the New harness.

116. What’s the difference between parameters and local variables? How are they used in an activity?

Values stored in parameter values can be shared between two activities but the scope of local variables is confined to the activity in which they are declared.
Parameters can be referenced as Param.parametername.
Local variables are referenced as Local.variablename.

117. How can we pass parameters between activities? Explain.

By using In/Out parameters. In parameters means that it’s expecting values from another activity and Out parameter stores the values to be used by another activity.

118. Explain with an example how can we reuse an activity?

By parameters itself. Say for example we have an activity to append two strings which keep changing as the application proceeds. So declare two parameters of type Strings and pass different values to it, but the business logic to append them will always remain the same, only parameter values keeps on changing.

119. What is a step page what role does it play in an activity?

Each step in an activity may have a designated step page. When creating or updating an activity, the developer identifies an existing or new clipboard page for the method (or instruction) in that step to act on, in a column of the tab labeled Step Page. The step page becomes the primary page for the duration of this step’s execution. So any rule referenced in this step will be looked upon in the class associated with that step page if there is no step page than the Applies To class will consider.

120. How to write a java code in an activity? Explain with a small example.

Just by using an API “java” in method tab.
Eg. If we want to access a clipboard property then the java code will be like, Tools.findPage(“pageName”).getString(“.PropertyName”);

121. Consider this scenario, I have an activity in ruleset A and I want to call this activity from an activity in ruleset B.Is this possible? If yes, how?

Yes, this is possible through ruleset prerequisites. It is defined under Rule-Ruleset-Version.
Note: Process Commander enforces RuleSet version prerequisites only during development (as a developer adds or saves rules) and as rules are imported during Import Archive operations. Prerequisites are not enforced at runtime; the user’s RuleSet list and the rule resolution algorithm determine which rules are available for the user to execute.

122. What are show-page and show-HTML? Explain with example.

Show-Page is used to display any clipboard page in XML form (name-value pair).
Show-HTML method is used to cause the activity to process an HTML rule and send the resulting HTML to a user for display by Internet Explorer. Also known as stream processing. This may involve the interpretation of JSP tags (or the older HTML directives), which can access the clipboard to obtain property values, or can insert other HTML rules, and so on.

123. Explain about Onchange Activity?

OnChange activity to be executed automatically by a Declare OnChange rule, Such activities must not use any methods that directly change the properties or the database. Declare Expression rules do not evaluate during the execution of an OnChange.activity. OnChange activities must not perform any forward chaining themselves.

124. Explain about Trigger Activity?

Trigger activity to be executed automatically by a Declare Trigger rule. Because triggered activities run during database commits, they cannot themselves commit database transactions.

125. How do we create a Work Object from Activity?

First Create NewPage with a Page-New
Within the Page-New step specify the “model” and “NewClass”
On the new page Set the properties
.pyFlowName with FlowName
.pyDescription
.pyOrigOrg
.pyLabel
Call Add activity in the next step and specify the StepPage where we have to call the WorkObject
Call Add Creates the WorkObject where the activity belongs to the type of the class.

 

Decisions

Decision Rules are categorized into

1)      When condition rule

2)      Decision tree rule

3)      Decision table rule

4)      Map value rule

 

126. Explain about WHEN condition rule?

This returns True or False as result.

  • Evaluates the relationship between one or more property values and return true or false.
  • Based on simple if/then/else conditions.

127. Explain about the DecisionTree rule?

DecisionTrees are instances of the Rule-Declare-DecisionTree rule type. Decision tree accepts one input property value but can evaluate numerous properties.Best used for complex if/then/else statements.DecisionTree can capture and present business logic in the form of one or more if/then/else conditions.DecisionTree can be referred from three other rules From the decision shape of flow rule.
In an activity, we can evaluate the DecisionTree using Property-Map-DecisionTree. DecisionTree can be referring to Rule-Declare-Expression.

128. Explain about DecisionTable?

The decision table is instances of the Rule-Declare-DecisionTable rule type.
Decision table contains one or more rows each containing test conditions and a result to return.
Returns a value when all tests are true for a row.
If there is no result in a cell it is true by default.
If no rows are true it returns the otherwise row.
Decision tables can capture and present business logic in the form of one or more if… then… else conditions.
Decision table can be referred from three other rules:
From the decision shape of floe rule.
In an activity, we can evaluate the decision table using Property-Map-DecisionTable
Decision Table can be referred from Rule-Declare-Expression

129. Explain about the Map Value Rule?

A map value rule is a rule that converts one or two input values, such as latitude and longitude numbers, into a calculated result value, such as a city name. The rule uses ranges for the input value or values and a matrix to look up the result. Map value rules are instances of the Rule-Obj-MapValue rule type. This rule type is part of the Decision category.

 

Declaratives

Declaratives :

Declarative rule is an instance of a class derived from Rule-Declared

They allow for automatic processing of Property values.

No need to be called Explicitly.

No need to run in sequential fashion.

System manages re-evaluation when it detects change.

 

130. Name some declarative rules?

Rule-Declare-Expressions, OnChange, Constraints, Trigger, Index.

131. What is Declare-Expression? Explain?

An Expression executed automatically in response to a property value change in with the expression.
Declare Expression rules are instances of the Rule-Declare-Expressions rule type. They are part of the Decision category.
We can create Declare-Expression rule instead of using a property set method in an Activity.

132. What is the use of PageContext?

PageContext is used if target property is in PageList or PageGroup.
If target property has mode single value and appears directly on the page of applied to a class, PageContext should be blank. This called Context-Free expression.

133. What is Forward Chaining?

Forward Chaining provides the automatic calculation of the property by executing the declarative rule when any one of the input property value is changed.
For example, if the area property depends on the length and width property, then Forward Chaining causes the area property to be recalculated every time either length or width values changes.

134. What is Backward Chaining?

Back Ward chaining provides the automatic calculation of the property by executing the declarative rule, when the value is needed for the property, rather than when input change.
For example, if the area property depends on length and width property, the backward chaining causes the area property to be recalculated each time the area property is required.
Almost all the declarative rules implement only forward chaining, except the Rule-Declare-Expression.
In rule-Declare-Expression, we have a choice to decide either we should go to Forwarding chaining or Backward Chaining.

135. Explain about Rule-Declare Onchange?

Runs an activity automatically when the value of a specified property change.It is always Forward Chaining. If we specified more than one property, they all must be on the same page.

136. How to implement Rule-Declare-Onchange?

a. Create an instance of Rule-declare-onchange
b. Select the properties we want this rule to keep a track of.
c. Optionally enter a when condition rule to be evaluated.
d. Provide the activity name of type OnChange.

137. Explain about Declare Triggers?

  • Declare Trigger runs an activity when instances of a specific class are created, updated, or deleted in the DataBase.
  • Declare Trigger is always Forward Chaining.

138. Explain about Constraints?

  • Constraints used for validation purpose.
  • Define and enforce the relationship among property values.
  • Prevent the user from advancing if the constraint is not satisfied.
  • Prevent invalid data entered.
  • Constrains is always Forward Chaining.

139. What is the difference between Constraints and Validation Rules?

Constraints are declarative rules triggered automatically when a property value changes. Validation rules must be told when to run When a form is submitted or Prior to running a Flow Action.

140. Explain about Declare Index?

Declare Index rules are instances of the Rule-Declare-Index class. Declare Index Automatically extracts a value from an embedded property when its value has changed.
They are part of the sysadmin category.

141. How do we implement the Declare Index?

Step 1: Create a class inherits from the Index- class. Provide these three properties: pxInsIndexedKey, pxIndexCount, pxIndexPurpose.
Step 2: Create Rule-Declare-Index And provide Source Page Context and Source page context class, Index class to write.
Step 3: In list view, Join tab provide Declare Index name.

142. What is a clipboard and how it is organized?

Each connected Process Commander requestor has an associated temporary memory area on the server known as the clipboard. The clipboard has a hierarchical structure, consisting of nodes known as pages, most of which have a name and an associated class. Pages act as buffers or temporary copies of object instances (of that class) that are copied from, or may later be stored into, the PegaRULES database or another database.

143. Explain about Delegating a rule?

A delegated rule is one that appears for a specific group of users so that they may manage these rules outside the development environment. Delegated rules appear on the My Rules gadget for a single user or for all the users who are associated with a specific access group. An application user who has the PegaRULES: WorkMgr4 access role can update the leftmost tab of existing rules that may change frequently.

Opening a delegated rule

To open a rule delegated to you:

  • From the WorkManager portal, open the Dashboard workspace, locate the My Business Rules area, and click the link that labels the delegated rule.
  • From the Developer portal, select View > My Rules > label.

Delegating a rule

To mark a rule as delegated, click the Favorites toolbar button ( ) and complete the Delegated Rules dialog box.

Withdrawing delegation

To cancel the delegation of a rule that is delegated to you:

  • Using the Developer portal, select Edit > My Rules. Complete the dialog box and click Submit.
  • Using the WorkManager portal, click the Edit button in the My Business Rules area of the Process Work workspace. Complete the dialog box and click Submit.

Notes

The delegation of a rule to a user doesn’t eliminate the need for that user to hold an appropriate access role and privileges to check out the rule, modify the rule, and check it back in.

 

Rule Resolution

144.  How the system finds rules through rule resolution?

Rule resolution is an internal search algorithm that the system uses to find the best suitable rule to apply in a particular situation.

It uses the following as input :

  • name of the rule.
  • availability.
  • date and time of creation.
  • ruleset list.
  • circumstance, if any.
  • position in the class hierarchy.
  • inheritance type, pattern or directed.
  • access roles and privileges held.

It works as follows:

  • First rule type is matched.
  • Then the Class name of the rule instance is matched bottom up in the class hierarchy and all rules matching these criteria are filtered.
  • Then the rules are filtered on the basis of the ruleset, its , and its availability.
  • If they are time-based rules then the one with soonest end date will be picked.
  • Then the circumstance values are checked, the property value in the rule is checked
  • against the user clipboard value, if a match is found then that rule is picked and the base unqualified rule is dropped.
  • Then the rules are filtered based on the access roles and privileges.
  • Te rules that qualify the above criteria are picked and the one in lowest in the class hierarchy is executed.

 

Many Process Commander applications provide business process management and automation through six functional capabilities, informally known as the Six R’s:

  • Receiving — Accepting and capturing the essential data describing work from multiple sources in multiple media and formats, from keyboards, scanners, and external systems.
  • Routing — Using characteristics of the work and knowledge about the workforce to make intelligent matches and assignments.
  • Reporting — Providing real-time visibility of work in progress, work completed, productivity, bottlenecks, and quality.
  • Responding — Communicating status, requests for information, and progress to the work originator and to other people involved in the work, by e-mail, fax, written mail, and other means.
  • Researching — Accessing external systems and databases through connectors to support analysis and decisionmaking.
  • Resolving — Through automated processing and automated support of users, completing the work updating downstream systems promptly.

 

145. Difference between Work- and Data- classes?

The Work- base class, one of thirteen standard top level abstract classes, is a superclass to all the classes that define work objects. A work object is a fundamental unit that records processed work in an application. The Data- base class is an abstract class above various classes that define and containstatic data and cumulative data. For example, the Data-Admin- classes containinformation created by your Process Commander developers defining who can use theapplication, their privileges and security, and where they belong in the organization.

 

146. What are the different layers of Architecture?

A robust class structure is the foundation of reuse throughout our application. The PRPC recommended class structure design pattern offers flexibility in our design and provides for more levels of reuse.

There is 4 distinct layers in the PRPC best practice class structure design pattern:

  • PRPC Shared Product: The PRPC Shared Product represents the out-of-the-box Process Commander classes such as Work, Work-Object, Work-Folder, Work-Cover, and Data
  • Enterprise Shared Product Layer: The Enterprise Shared Product Layer is a library of extensions to the PRPC base functionality. You should always include this layer. It is rare, but this layer may be omitted in some very small one-off applications.
  • Generalized Application Layer: The Generalized Application Layer represents a generic base application to use as a framework for application instances. Here we will define most of the rules for our base application.
  • Organizational and Specialized Application Layer: The Organizational and Specialized Application Layer represents an organizational application instance. Here we will be implementing the generic application. The class structure provides the first and most important layer of reuse and specialization in PRPC due to its precedents in the rule resolution algorithm. The class structure provides us with a hierarchy in which rules can be placed. The higher a rule is in the hierarchy, the more potential reuse there is. However, a rule can only reference other rules at the same level in the hierarchy or higher. For example, a rule X at class A- cannot call Rule Y defined at A-B if no rule Y exists at A-. The key to a good class structure is that there are enough layers and classes to hold the most fundamental levels of reuse but not too many that it becomes cumbersome to navigate and unclear as to the intent. Shared RuleSets provide a grouping mechanism for sharing both classes resolved and non-class resolved rules. For example, Rule HTML properties and utility functions are non-class resolved. RuleSets are key to reusability as they are the mechanism by which shared rules are moved to different rule bases and/or environments.

 

147. What is a class group and what are its advantages?

A Class Group is an instance of the Data-Admin-DB-ClassGroup class. A class group instance causes the system to store the instances corresponding to two ormore concrete classes that have a common key format in a single database table. Classgroups are commonly used to cause the system to store instances of similar or relatedWork- concrete classes together in one relational database table. All the classes who belong to a class group can inherit all the rulesclared and defined atthe class group level.

148. What are the Inheritance types?

Process Commander provides two kinds of class inheritance, known as directed inheritance and pattern inheritance.
Pattern inheritance, an optional feature we can set up for a class in the Rule-Obj-Class rule, affects the first steps in the rule resolution algorithm. This approach is sometimes called “dual” inheritance.
During rule resolution, pattern inheritance causes a class to inherit rules first from classes that match a prefix of the class name.
Directed inheritance — Allows us to name a parent class, choosing a name that’s not related to the name of this class.

149. How pattern and directed inheritance works?

Pattern Inheritance works as follows:

Rule resolution always looks first for a rule it needs in the class initially provided, regardless of the state of this check box. If the box is checked and the rule is not found, it forms a sequence of candidate classes to search by truncating, from the left, portions of the class name that consists only of a dash character, or consist only of characters other than a dash. If no class exists for one of these computed names, rule resolution continues with the next prefix.
For example, a search for a rule in the MyBank-LoanOrg-LoanDept class could search through these classes, in the order indicated:
• MyBank-LoanOrg-LoanDept
• MyBank-LoanOrg-
• MyBank-LoanOrg
• MyBank-
• MyBank

Directed Inheritance works as follows:

If the pattern search finishes without finding a rule, go back to the original class and use directed inheritance to find the parent of the original class.

150. What are the types of classes?

A class is an instance of the Rule-Obj-Class rule type.

An abstract class is a rule (an instance of the Rule-Obj-Class class) created to support the definition of rules, including other classes. Such rules can be inherited by subclasses of the abstract class. Rules with a class as a key part (such as properties, activities, flows, models, and so on) can apply to an abstract class.

A concrete class can have instances stored in the database. An abstract class cannot have any instances.

151. What are Pega default classes?

A base class is one of twelve standard abstract classes that are immediately below the top class in the hierarchy. This top class, known as the ultimate base class, is identified by the symbol @baseclass.

The three base classes of greatest interest to application developers are Data-, Assign- and Work-.

The base classes are:

Assign- Assignment instances, each identifying a step in a workflow that requires human input or work by an outside organization, person, or system.

Code- Classes that directly reference server program code. Pages belonging to classes derived from the Code- base class exist only temporarily in memory, and are not saved in the PegaRULES database.

Data- Parent class of concrete classes containing reference data, including data for system administration and security.

Embed- Defines the structure of pages embedded within other pages. Pages belonging to classes derived from the Embed- base class cannot be renamed or directly saved.

History- Append-only instances record the change history of objects in another class.

Index- Secondary access keys defined to provide fast retrieval of other instances.

Link – Instances that record associations between two objects.

Log- Parent of concrete classes containing cumulative logs of important system-wide events.

PegaAccel- Parent of special classes that support the Application Accelerator tool.

Rule- Rule types, for defining applications.

System- Contains operational status information about the entire Process Commander system.

Work- Work objects, covers, and folders.

152. What is the difference between Work group and Access Group?

A work group is an instance of the Data-Admin-WorkGroup class. A work group can identify a user who is a supervisor, together with a set of workers and workbaskets that report to that supervisor. An access group is an instance of the Data-Admin-Operator-AccessGroup class. Access groups make a set of RuleSet versions available to requestors.
Developers define access groups and associate an access group with each user (each Data-Admin-Operator-ID instance). Typically, multiple users are associated with or belong to one access group.
The access group associated with a user affects access control by determining:
• The portal layout that a user sees first after logging in.
• The local customization RuleSet name and RuleSet version. These usually are defaulted whenever
this user creates a new rule instance.
• The application rule for this user.
• Optionally, the access roles available to this user.

153. How to associate an Operator with a workbasket?

In a work group, we can associate an operator with a manager and a work basket.

154. What are the access roles and how they work in the runtime? Can we create our ownAccess Roles? If yes, explain with an example.

An access role is an instance of the Rule-Access-Role-Name class. Use an access role name to convey permissions (capabilities) to a user or a group of users. Access roles can be referenced in requestor instances, Operator ID instances, in access group instances, in activities, and in queries.
At login, the system assembles a set of roles for a user based on information in a user’s requestor instance, Operator ID instance, and the associated access group instance. Access roles influence which classes a user can view, update, delete, and so on through the Access of Role to Object and Access Deny rule types.

Example: Create an instance of Rule-Access-Role-Name. To grant access to a user for a particular class create an instance of Rule-Access-Role-Obj.
For each of the eight categories in the array, you can enter an Access When rule name, or a numeric value between 1 and 5. If at runtime, the production level of your Process Commander system is not greater than the numeric value, then users with the specified access role can perform the operation (on objects of that class). If an Access When rule evaluates to True at runtime, the users with the specified access role can perform the operation. The production level is set in Data-Admin-System.

155. What is a portal and how can it be customized for different users?

The Process Commander portals support two user communities:

• The Developer portal provides an integrated work, test, and development environment to support application developers. Customization of the Developer portal is typically not necessary and ordinarily limited to menus and skins.
• User portals support managers and users of applications workers, as they enter, update, and resolve work objects. User portals may be customized to reflect the terminology, layout, facilities, and styles appropriate to each user community.
This Developer portal provides quick access to dozens of tools, wizards, reports, and other capabilities.
The appearance and function of our Process Commander portal depends on information in our access group which references a portal rule (Rule-Portal rule type)
We can create our own portals and define new gadgets (instances of Data-Gadget).
Data-Gadget contains simple HTML rules. We can change the Pega Logo as well.

156. Define the access group and its functionality?

Access Group controls the security basing on the job functions.
It is the instance of Data-Admin-Operator-AccessGroup.
Various aspects that can be controlled through access group are
a) default and available types of works( also called as work pools),
b) Primary rulesets ( Access Control to rulesets),
c) Assigned roles,
d) Portal layout
e) Default ruleset for making changes ( Default ruleset whenever the user creates/ saves as the rule )

157. What is the order in which Rule set list is constructed?

Requestor, Organization, Division, Access Group is the order in which this list is constructed.
In access group Application rule set list is in bottom and Production Rule set is on top of it. It follows Top-down approach.

158. What is RuleSet?

A RuleSet name is an instance of the Rule-RuleSet-Name rule type. Each RuleSet defines a major subset of rules in the PegaRULES database, because every instance of every rule type references or “belongs to” a RuleSet. A RuleSet name is a major aspect in:

  • Access control
  • Grouping interrelated rules
  • Managing the rules
  • Moving applications — sets of rules — from one Process Commander system to another.

Process Commander itself consists of six standard RuleSets:

  • Pega-AppDefinition — Standard rules supporting Direct Capture of Objectives features
  • Pega-ProCom — Standard rules that support business process management (BPM) applications
  • Pega-IntSvcs — Standard rules that support integration
  • Pega-WB — Standard rules that support the portal infrastructure
  • Pega-RULES — Standard rules that support the business rules engine and rule resolution
  • CheckInCandidates — Optional. Empty, used by rule check-in processing. Version 01-01-01 is not locked.

Any application developer who can be checked out rules has a private RuleSet.The system creates each private ruleset automatically named to match the developer’s operator ID value. We create one ruleset per application. The rule set names are part of SysAdmin category.

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