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What is a database?

The database is an organized or structured collection of data which make easy access, manage, retrieve and update of stored data. Simply, we can say large data values can be stored in the database. The best database system is a library. The library has a lot of book collections of different genres, here the library is the database and books are the data entries.

Initial computer era, data was collected, organized and stored on tapes, it could not read again. Computer scientists found database as a better solution to store huge data. With both data and database together, along with associated operations with them referred to as a database system.

Characteristics of the database

The major characteristics of the database as follows:

  • Uses a digital place on a server to manage and store data
  • The database can store all kinds of real-time data.
  • It provides data security, a clear and logical view of the process that manipulates data.
  • It contains automatic and recovery procedures
  • It has ACID properties that help to manage data in a healthy state in case of failure.
  • It helps to reduce the complex relationships between data.
  • It helps specified users to view data according to their viewpoints and supports the manipulation and processing of data.

Applications of database

Database applications are designed to manage data in a structured manner. Even small organizations create their database software to maintain and handle employee details, stocks and mailing lists. Big companies also use database system for data manipulation. Common applications of the database are accounting, web, and CRM.

What is DBMS?

A DBMS is a software program that is used to store, handle and manage data values. The concept of DBMS was introduced in the year the 1960s to manage any real-world data. It uses commands and syntax to load, retrieve or modify existing data from the system.

DBMS system aims to facilitate an overview of the databases and provides a variety of administrative operations such as tuning, performance monitoring, and backup recovery. DBMS allow users to define and load data, update data, retrieve data and it maintains data integrity.

Some DBMS software is MYSQL, SQL Server, Oracle, RDBMS, dBASE, Microsoft Access and FoxPro. Most DBMS program comes with an Open Database Connectivity (ODBC) driver that allows the database system to integrate or connect with other database systems. For example, common SQL statements such as SELECT, UPDATE, and INSERT are translated from its syntax into another database syntax.

Database basic query  languages used in DBMS are given below as

  • DML – Data Manipulation Language
  • TCL – Transaction Control Language
  • DCL – Data control Language
  • DDL – Data Definition Language

To create a new database in DBMS, use the CREATE DATABASE statement


CREATE DATABASE database name;
Now the database of names school will be created.

What is RDBMS?

Relational Database Management System is a DBMS specifically configured for a relational database. RDBMS is known as advanced versions of DBMS or subsets of DBMS.

The relational databases use a structured table format i.e row-wise and column-wise to store data. This makes the user easy to access particular values inside the table structured database. RDBMS is “relational”, so the data values and entries in each table in the database are associated with each other. The tables might as well be interlinked to each other in the database systems and its relational structures help the user to run command queries over many tables at a time.

RDBMS is the program that runs different queries to add, update, retrieve, edit and search data values on the table. RDMS also provides a created view of the visual data entries. It displays data entries in the tabular form like spreadsheets and allows the user to see and edit table values. Most of the RDBMS programs allow the user to create, edit, update, insert and delete forms.

Most famous and popular DBMS programs fall into the categories of the RDBMS database. Some DBMS applications include Oracle, MYSQL, IBM DB2, and the Microsoft’s SQL Server. Some of the above applications also support to create non-relational database systems.

Structured Query Language (SQL) is the standard language used to deals with relational Databases. SQL syntax and queries can be used to insert, edit, search, update, drop, delete database records and files.

SQL CREATE TABLE syntax as follows

CREATE TABLE table_name(
column1 datatype,
column2 datatype,
columnN datatype,
PRIMARY KEY(one or more columns)

What is meant by NoSQL?

NoSQL is the non-relational DBMS that doesn’t need a fixed schema, avoids joints and is flexible to scale. The NoSQL is the next-generation database system. NoSQL database system is used to store distributed data with humongous or same kind of data. Mainly this technology is used in the operation of Big data and real-time web applications. Companies like Facebook, Twitter, Instagram, Google collect terabytes of user’s data every passing day.

The NoSQL database is referred to as “NOT Only SQL” or “NOT SQL”. NoSQL concept is introduced in 1998. NoSQL is open-source and it has horizontal scalability to add any commodity kind of systems that could be added.

NoSQL offers easy replication and the number of clusters can be increased. It is schema-free and there is no need to design or create the tables and inserting the data to it. It can handle huge amounts of data and achieve performance by adding an N number of machines to your clusters. Several NoSQL databases available in the market, it makes difficult for you to select the right NoSQL DBMS for your system.

NoSQL database system has a high range of technologies to store organized or structured, unstructured or distributed and polymorphic data values. Examples of several Non-relational databases include Apache HBase Database, Oracle NoSQL Database, IBM Domino Database, etc. NoSQL databases play an important role in the growth of the internet and the organizing of unstructured data.

A NoSQL query consists of the following parts:

  • fields name to be extracted
  • table name to extract the records from
  • the expression used for filtering the table rows
  • groupby- fields to group the data
  • aggregate functions to be applied to columns
  • Order by- fields to order the return
  • limit- an integer number of records to return value.

The table and expression parameters are mandatory.

The NoSQL queries are constructed as follows

SELECT fields with aggregation
FROM table
WHERE expression
GROUP BY groupby
ORDER BY orderby
LIMIT limit


Parameter        DBMS        RDBMS         NoSQL
Storage Data stored as a file system.RDBMS applications store data in the form of table structured manner.NoSQL is a non-relational database system. It stores data in the form of unstructured. manner.
Number of usersIt supports a single user.RDBMS supports multiple users.It also supports multiple users.
Database structuresIn DBMS, data stores either in either a navigational or hierarchical form.RDBMS uses tabular structures to store data. In table headers are the column names and the rows contains corresponding values.NoSQL uses to store data in structured, semi-structured and unstructured forms.
          ACIDIn regular DBMS, the data not be stored following the ACID. It creates an inconsistencies database.RDBMS are harder to construct and obey ACID (Atomicity, Consistency, Isolation, Durability). It helps to create consistency database.NoSQL may support ACID to store data.
Normalization The database does not support normalization.It supports the normalization and joining of tables.It does have table form, so it does not support normalization.
open-sourceIt's a mix of an open-source and commercial database.Open-source applicationOpen-source program
Integrity constraintsDBMS database does not support the integrity constants.The relational database supports the integrity constraints at the schema level. Data values beyond a defined range cannot be stored in the particular RDBMS column.NoSQL database supports integrity constraints.
Development yearIn the 1960s DBMS is introduced to store data.It was developed in the 1970s to deal with the issues of flat file storage.It developed in the late 2000s to overcome the issues and limitations of the SQL database.
Distributed databaseIt does not support a distributed database.It supports a distributed database.It also supports a distributed database.
Ideally suited for This system deals with a small quantity of data.This database system deals with a large quantity of data.NoSQL database mainly designed for Big data and real-time web data.
Client-serverDBMS system does not support client-server architecture.RDBMS program support client-server architecture.NoSQL storage system supports multi-server. It also supports client-server architecture.
Data relationshipNo relationship between the data valueData related to each other with the help of foreign keysData can be stored in a single document file.
Hardware  and softwareLow software and hardwareHigh software and specialized DB hardware (Oracle Exadata, etc.)Commodity hardware
Data fetching Data fetching is slower for complex data.Data fetching is rapid because of its relational approach and database.Data fetching is easy and flexible.
Examples XML, Windows Registry, file system, etc.MYSQL, Oracle, SQL Server, etc.Apache HBase, IBM Domino,Oracle NoSQL Database,etc.

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